The period under review has been seen some incidences that are critical in the violent eruptions that have led to loss of lives. Key among these include;

The fatal crash of a helicopter carrying the top leadership in the Security portfolio - Hons George Saitoti and Orwa Ojode and their security detail

·     The attack on Christian faithful in churches in Garissa by perceived Al-Shabaab militants

·     Riots in Mombasa by youth protesting the killing of the Muslim Cleric Aboud Rogo Mohammed; which resulted in direct attacks on several churches and the death of four people including two police officers.

·    The clashes in Mandera involving militia from Ethiopia.

·     The Tana River Massacre


This is indeed an escalation of occurrences of violence in the country.

In the violence mapping report that CRECO released in May 20121, we stipulated that we were using the indices developed by the Kenyan National Steering Committee on Peace Building and Conflict Management (NSC)2 to map potential for conflict in the country. Using this framework, we developed indicative scores against a maximum of 5 scores (the maximum denoting highest potential for conflict as a result of each variable).


In respect of that conflict mapping report for example, Tana River County, which was one of the High risk areas that were identified, scored as follows:

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